The most common causes of facial injuries include falls, motor vehicle accidents and sports injuries. Injuries to the facial region can impart not only physical injury but emotional trauma as well. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons have received a minimum of 4 years of intensive hospital based surgical training and are uniquely trained in repairing both soft tissues (facial lacerations) and bony injuries to maxillofacial region( nose, cheek bones, jaw bones and eye sockets) and oral cavity (intraoral lacerations and knocked out or displaced teeth) to restore function and achieve esthetics.

If facial bones have been fractured or broken, they will be treated in much the same way as any other broken bone. Unlike other bones of the body, a plaster cast cannot be applied to a cheekbone, but the bones can be held firmly together by either wiring or the insertion of small plates and screws. Soft tissue lacerations are treated immediately by way of suture (stitching). Depending on the nature of the injury, treatment can take place in the hospital or in the office.

Odontogenic (Dental) Pathology

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Cutaneous Pathology of the Head and Neck

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Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common form of apnea. Here’s information to help you understand how obstructive sleep apnea can affect your life and what can be done about it.

What Is Sleep Apnea?

Apnea literally means “cessation of breath.” If you have sleep apnea, your breath can become very shallow or you may even stop breathing while you are asleep. This state of not breathing can occur up to hundreds of times a night in some people.

What Is Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) — also called obstructive sleep apnea syndrome — occurs when there are repeated episodes of complete or partial blockage of the upper airway during sleep. During a sleep apnea episode, the diaphragm and chest muscles work harder to open the obstructed airway and pull air into the lungs. Breathing usually resumes with a loud gasp, snort, or body jerk. These episodes can interfere with sound sleep. They can also reduce the flow of oxygen to vital organs and cause irregular heart rhythms.

What Are the Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea?

Often the person with obstructive sleep apnea is not the first to recognize the signs. OSA is often first noticed by the bed partner or a person who observes the patient at rest. Many people who have OSA have no sleep complaints.

The most common obstructive sleep apnea symptoms include:

  • Daytime sleepiness or fatigue
  • Dry mouth or sore throat upon awakening
  • Headaches in the morning
  • Trouble concentrating, forgetfulness, depression, or irritability
  • Night sweats
  • Restlessness during sleep
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Snoring
  • Sudden awakenings with a sensation of gasping or choking
  • Difficulty getting up in the mornings

Symptoms of OSA in children may not be as obvious. They include:

  • Bedwetting
  • Choking or drooling
  • Excessive sweating at night
  • Inward movement of the ribcage when inhaling
  • Learning and behavioral disorders
  • Poor school performance
  • Sluggishness or sleepiness (often misinterpreted as laziness in the classroom)
  • Snoring
  • Teeth grinding
  • Restlessness in bed
  • Pauses or absence of breathing
  • Unusual sleeping positions, such as sleeping on the hands and knees, or with the neck hyperextended


What are TMJ Treatments?

TMJ Disorder or Temporomandibular Joint Disorder is pain in the area of the lower jaw where the head and jaw connect. The pain experienced may be a result of muscles in the area, problems with the joint or pain in the face around that area. TMJ Disorder can cause severe pain, soreness and problems with speech.

Some of the causes for pain and soreness in the area are:

  • Misaligned teeth
  • Tension from grinding or clenching
  • Stress
  • Injury
  • Arthritis


Although some of the pain in the TMJ area subsides over time, sometimes the pain will remain. Some steps can be taken to help relieve discomfort:

  • Use ice packs and mild heat packs
  • Eat soft foods
  • Relaxation of the jaws – avoid extreme movements or jaw clenching
  • Mouthguards/Nightguards
  • Pain medication

If mild treatments do not work, other options such as surgery or referral to a physician may be explored. Consult with your dentist if you are experiencing discomfort in the TMJ area.